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            经济学人:印尼经济—基础设施建立之后(1)

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            Victoriaopai, a teacher in a remote part of West Kalimantan, Indonesia's slice of Borneo,

            Victoriaopai是印尼婆罗洲西加里曼丹岛某偏远地区的一名老师,
            is charmed by the new road connecting her school to Putussibau, the nearest town.
            连接她所在学校和最近小镇普图西包的那条新公路让她着迷。
            It is smooth, reasonably straight and cuts through swathes of jungle.
            这条公平坦笔直,途中还穿过了大片的丛林。
            It used to take three hours to get into town, she says. Now it takes 40 minutes.
            她说以前需要三个小时才能进城。现在只需40分钟。
            Over the past five years new roads, airports and railways have popped up across Indonesia.
            过去5年里,印尼各地建了新的公路、机场和铁路。
            Reviving its ailing infrastructure was a pledge of Joko Widodo, the president, known as Jokowi, during his first term.
            重振破旧的基础设施是佐科·维多多总统(也称Jokowi)在第一任期时的承诺。
            Along with poverty-reduction measures, it helped him win re-election on April 17th.
            加上扶贫措施,这帮助他在4月17日赢得连任。
            In his first term Indonesia grew by 5.1% annually;
            在他的第一个任期,印尼经济年增长5.1%;
            last year the IMF said ambitious economic reforms could enable Indonesia to grow at 6.5% by 2022.
            去年IMF称雄心勃勃的经济改革有望使印尼经济在2022年前增长6.5%。
            Jokowi promises to improve "human resources", meaning education and the quality of the labour force.
            维多多承诺改善“人力资源”,指的是劳动力的教育和质量。
            In a speech on April 30th he talked about "upskilling" Indonesia.
            在4月30日的一次演讲中,他谈到了通过培训等方式提高印尼人的工作技能。

            印尼经济—基础设施建立之后(1).jpg

            In 2003 the constitution was amended to require the government to spend 20% of its budget on education.

            在2003年,修改后的宪法要求政府将其预算的20%用于教育。
            Previously it had spent about half that. And the share of 13- to 18-year-olds enrolled in school has risen over the past two decades, to 88%.
            此前,教育开支仅为约10%。在过去两年中,13到18岁人群的入学率增长至88%。
            But outcomes are poor. Over half of those who finish school are functionally illiterate.
            但结果很糟糕。其中超过一半的毕业生是功能性文盲。
            Between 2003 and 2015 Indonesia's scores in the PISA tests run by the OECD, a think-tank of 36 countries, improved only slightly.
            在2003年到2015年间,印尼在由OECD(一个由36国组成的智囊团)组织的PISA测试中的得分只是略有提高。
            In 2015 it came 64th out of 70 countries in the organisation's rankings of 15-year-olds in literacy.
            2015年,该组织对70个国家的15岁儿童的读写能力进行排名,该国仅排在64位。
            The problem, says Daniel Suryadarma of the SMERU Research Institute in Jakarta,
            雅加达印尼社会监督和预警研究所的Daniel Suryadarma表示,
            is not how much money goes on education, but how it is spent.
            问题不在于花了多少钱在教育上,而在于怎么花。
            Though half of the extra funding went on teachers' salaries, pay rises were not tied to performance, so there was no impact on attainment.
            尽管有一半的额外资金花在了教师工资上,但加薪与工作表现无关,所以这对成绩没有影响。
            Meanwhile, facilities are threadbare. Half of primary schools have no electricity.
            同时,教育设施也很破旧。一半的小学没通电。
            Shoddy schooling makes it hard for people to find jobs. Red tape makes it harder still.
            劣质的学校教育使人们很难找到工作。繁文缛节使这更加困难。
            According to the World Bank's "ease of doing business" ranking, Indonesia has the world's third-highest severance pay.
            根据世界银行的“经商环境”排名,印尼印尼拥有世界第三高的离职金。
            An employee dismissed after a year is entitled to four months' pay.
            一年后被解雇的员工有权获得四个月的工资。
            Since it is expensive for firms to shed workers in lean times, they are reluctant to hire in good ones.
            由于在不景气时期,公司裁员成本昂贵,所以在繁荣时期,他们不愿招聘。
            Pricey severance also helps explain why 60% of Indonesian employees work in the informal sector,
            昂贵的离职金也帮助解释了为什么60%的印尼员工会在非正规部门工作,
            and why many of those who do not are on temporary, rolling contracts.
            以及为什么很多正规部门员工签的是临时滚动合同。

            译文由可可原创,仅供学习交流使用,未经许可请勿转载。

            重点单词   查看全部解释    
            smooth [smu:ð]

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            adj. 平稳的,流畅的,安祥的,圆滑的,搅拌均匀的,可

             
            minutes ['minits]

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            n. 会议记录,(复数)分钟

             
            previously ['pri:vju:sli]

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            adv. 先前,在此之前

             
            literacy ['litərəsi]

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            n. 识字,读写能力

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            illiterate [i'litərit]

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            adj. 文盲的,无知的
            n. 文盲

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            employee [.emplɔi'i:]

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            n. 雇员

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            quality ['kwɔliti]

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            n. 品质,特质,才能
            adj. 高品质的

             
            reluctant [ri'lʌktənt]

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            adj. 不情愿的,勉强的

             
            institute ['institju:t]

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            n. 学会,学院,协会
            vt. 创立,开始,制

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            ambitious [æm'biʃəs]

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            adj. 有雄心的,有抱负的,野心勃勃的

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