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            《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书(6)(中英对照)

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            V. Employment and Entrepreneurship

            五、就业与创业
            To create workfare programs for persons with disabilities, China has improved its laws and regulations, expanded channels for employment, and refined the service system to guarantee their right to employment.
            中国以建立劳动福利型残疾人事业为目标,通过完善法律法规、拓展就业渠道、完善服务体系,促进残疾人就业权利的实现。
            The right to employment of persons with disabilities is protected by law. The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities stipulates that people's governments at all levels shall formulate preferential policies as well as protective and supportive measures to help persons with disabilities to find employment through multiple channels, at various levels and in a variety of forms. The Employment Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China contains provisions on the disabled persons' right to work. The Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities specifies the details about employment guidelines, government duties, employers' responsibilities, supportive measures, employment services, and legal liability for these people. The Supreme People's Court publishes typical cases to help protect disabled persons' right to work and their lawful rights and interests in accordance with the law. Local people's congresses and governments also issue normativedocuments to promote employment, encourage entrepreneurship and guarantee equal job opportunities for persons with disabilities.
            残疾人就业权利受到法律保护。《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》对残疾人就业作了明确规定,要求各级人民政府采取优惠政策和扶持保护措施,实现残疾人多渠道、多层次、多种形式就业。《中华人民共和国就业促进法》对保障残疾人的劳动权利作了规定。《残疾人就业条例》对残疾人就业方针、政府职责、用人单位责任、保障措施、就业服务及法律责任等作了详细规定。最高人民法院发布典型案例,依法切实保障残疾人劳动的权利,切实维护残疾人合法权益。地方人大和政府也发布了促进残疾人就业、鼓励残疾人创业的规范性文件,保障残疾人平等就业。
            Policy support for the employment and self-employment of persons with disabilities. The government departments concerned have released a series of relevant policies and documents: Opinions on Reserving a Certain Proportion of Employment Positions for Persons with Disabilities Measures for the Administration of the Collection and Use of Employment Security Funds for Persons with Disabilities Opinions on Promoting Supported Employment for Persons with Disabilities Notice on Preferential Value-Added Tax Policies for Promoting Employment of Persons with Disabilities Notice on Policies for Government Purchase of Products from Employers of Persons with Disabilities Opinions on Supporting Employment and Entrepreneurship of Persons with Disabilities Program on Employment Skill Improvement for Persons with Disabilities (2016-2020) These efforts have helped persons with disabilities to enjoy the benefits of proactive employment policies. Based on market-oriented employment mechanisms, the state has taken preferential policies and supportive and protective measures for the employment and self-employment of persons with disabilities such as tax reductions, supplying facilities, preferential purchasing by the government, favorable loans and capital support, post allowance and social security subsidies.
            残疾人就业创业得到政策支持。政府有关部门相继发布《关于促进残疾人按比例就业的意见》《残疾人就业保障金征收使用管理办法》《关于发展残疾人辅助性就业的意见》《关于促进残疾人就业增值税优惠政策的通知》《关于促进残疾人就业政府采购政策的通知》《关于扶持残疾人自主就业创业的意见》《残疾人职业技能提升计划(2016-2020年)》等一系列扶持和保护残疾人就业的政策。将残疾人纳入积极的就业政策体系覆盖范围,在坚持以市场为导向的就业机制基础上,对残疾人就业创业采取优惠政策和扶持保护措施,包括税费减免、设施设备扶持、政府优先采购、信贷优惠以及资金支持、岗位补贴和社会保险补贴等。
            The Law of the People's Republic of China on Traditional Chinese Medicine provides that persons with visual disabilities who have obtained the qualification as blind medical massagers according to relevant state regulations can engage in self-employment or serve in medical institutions. The state gives support to the training, employment and self-employment of blind massagers. More than 110,000 therapeutic massagers and 10,000 medical massagers with visual disabilities have been trained.
            《中华人民共和国中医药法》规定,盲人按照国家有关规定取得盲人医疗按摩人员资格的,可以以个人开业的方式或者在医疗机构内提供医疗按摩服务。国家对盲人按摩的培训和就业、创业予以支持,累计培养盲人保健按摩人员超过11万人、盲人医疗按摩人员约1万人。
            Extensive training and services for persons with disabilities to seek employment or start businesses. The employment of persons with disabilities is covered by public services at all levels: Persons with disabilities in both rural and urban areas who are able to and wish to work are entitled to free services in finding employment or establishing self-employment; help is offered to those with disabilities in seeking employment and to employers in hiring them. Special employment service agencies for persons with disabilities have been set up at provincial, municipal and county levels to provide services such as policy advice, employment registration, career guidance, job opportunities, and training. Employment aid month activities take place during the New Year and Spring Festival to help them find jobs. By 2018, there had been 2,811 employment service organizations for persons with disabilities, with 34,000 staff.
            残疾人就业创业服务和培训广泛开展。各地将残疾人就业纳入公共服务范围,为有劳动能力和就业意愿的城乡残疾人免费提供就业创业服务,为残疾人就业和用人单位招用残疾人提供帮助。省、市、县三级政府建立了专门的残疾人就业服务机构,为残疾人提供政策咨询、求职登记、职业指导、职业介绍、职业培训等就业服务,并于元旦、春节期间举办就业援助月专项活动,集中为残疾人就业提供帮扶。截至2018年,全国共有残疾人就业服务机构2811家,工作人员3.4万人。
            Plans have been carried out to improve occupational skills for persons with disabilities, run training courses on jobs and entrepreneurship tailored to their needs, and hold occupational skill competitions to improve their abilities in finding employment or starting their own businesses. In 2018, another 494,000 persons with disabilities took part in training sessions. And 500 occupational training centers have been set up at the state level and 350 at the provincial level.
            实施残疾人职业技能提升计划,开展适合残疾人特点的职业培训和创业培训,组织各类残疾人职业技能竞赛,提升残疾人就业创业能力。2018年,城乡新增残疾人实名制培训49.4万人。建立了500家国家级残疾人职业培训基地,350家省级残疾人职业培训基地。
            Various provisions for employment of persons with disabilities. Steady progress has been made in reserving a certain proportion of employment positions, centralized employment, and self-employment for persons with disabilities. In recent years, the government has optimized the development and management of welfare jobs and encouraged "internet plus" employment. It has formulated "Directives on Supported Employment for Persons with Disabilities", which aims to assist persons with disabilities – including intellectual, mental, and severe physical disabilities – who are working-age individuals eager to be employed but find it hard to enter the competitive job market, to obtain and maintain employment. Provisions are also made for flexible working hours, intensity, pay and labor contract. By 2017, there had been at least one supported employment agency in every municipal district. Preferential measures have been taken to help persons with disabilities in rural areas to engage in farming, breeding, and handicraft industries, all effective sources of employment. In the past decade, the size and structure of employed persons with disabilities has remained stable, and the number has risen by 300,000 every year. In 2018, another 367,000 persons with certified disabilities were hired, 118,000 in urban areas and 249,000 in rural areas. By 2018, the employment figure of people with certified disabilities had reached 9.48 million.
            残疾人就业方式丰富多样。残疾人按比例就业、集中就业、自主就业创业稳定发展。近年来,政府优化公益性就业岗位开发管理,鼓励“互联网+”就业。制定《关于发展残疾人辅助性就业的意见》,针对就业年龄段内有就业意愿但难以进入竞争性劳动力市场的智力、精神和重度肢体残疾人,安排辅助性就业,集中组织生产劳动,在劳动时间、劳动强度、劳动报酬和劳动协议签订等方面采取灵活方式。截至2017年,全国所有市辖区至少建立了一所残疾人辅助性就业机构。通过优惠措施帮助农村残疾人从事种植业、养殖业、手工业等生产劳动,实现就业创业。近十年来,中国残疾人就业总体规模与结构趋于稳定,新增残疾人就业人数每年保持在30万人以上。2018年,城乡持证残疾人新增就业36.7万人,其中,城镇新增就业11.8万人,农村新增就业24.9万人。截至2018年,城乡持证残疾人就业人数达到948.4万人。
            Increasing the income of persons with disabilities through poverty relief efforts. The Chinese government has formulated the "Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation Program for Persons with Disabilities in Rural Areas (2001-2010)" and the "Outline of Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation for Persons with Disabilities in Rural Areas (2011-2020)". Since 2011, it has helped nearly 13 million persons with disabilities to engage in production activities through poverty relief efforts, and as a result 6.76 million have got out of poverty. Across the country, 5,490 poverty alleviation centers for persons with disabilities have been set up, employing 881,000 persons with disabilities and helping to increase the income of 1.77 million households with one or more disabled members. Support has been given to low-income households to engage in farming, breeding and handicraft industries as suited to local conditions. The Rain-Dew Anti-poverty Campaign is carried out to a deeper level, in which priority is given to training impoverished persons with disabilities and encouraging them to start up business in agriculture by including those capable of farming into the training programs for farmers.
            产业扶贫助推贫困残疾人就业增收。制定《农村残疾人扶贫开发计划(2001-2010年)》《农村残疾人扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》。2011年以来,中国扶持近1300万残疾人发展生产,其中676万贫困残疾人摆脱贫困。各地建立残疾人扶贫基地5490个,安置88.1万残疾人就业,扶持带动176.9万户残疾人家庭增加收入。支持残疾人贫困户因地制宜发展种养业和手工业。深入实施“雨露计划”,优先培训贫困残疾人,将适合从事农业生产的贫困残疾人纳入农民教育培训相关工程,鼓励他们在农业领域创业。
            A vocational skill improvement program and a training program for impoverished households have been launched to ensure labors with one or more disabled family members are prioritized in receiving training and they acquire at least one skill to achieve prosperity. And policies and measures have been taken to serve and support their employment and entrepreneurship, covering capital, worksites, facilities, market information and management. Poverty alleviation models with disabilities are included in programs for training entrepreneurship-based poverty relief leaders in poor villages. The state has formulated the "Plan on Developing Handicraft Industry to Lead Impoverished Women with Disabilities Out of Poverty". It has strengthened training for these women in practical and employable skills, and developed handicrafts to help them shake off poverty. The heads of National Women's Poverty Eradication Centers and female leaders in helping villagers achieve prosperity are encouraged to partner with and assist women with disabilities. The government holds skill training sessions in urban areas and provides more employment guidance and services to support women with disabilities in finding jobs and starting businesses.
            实施职业技能提升计划和贫困户教育培训工程,残疾人贫困户优先接受培训,确保贫困残疾人家庭劳动力至少掌握一门致富技能。落实残疾人贫困户培训后资金、场地、设备、市场信息、经营管理等方面的就业创业服务与扶持政策措施。将优秀脱贫致富残疾人纳入贫困村创业致富带头人培训工程。制定《发展手工制作促进贫困残疾妇女就业脱贫行动实施方案》,加强对残疾妇女的实用技术和就业技能培训,发展手工制作,促进贫困残疾妇女就业脱贫。鼓励“全国巾帼脱贫基地”负责人、农村致富女带头人等与残疾妇女结对帮扶。在城镇举办劳动技能培训,加强就业指导和服务,积极扶持残疾妇女自主择业创业。

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            encourage [in'kʌridʒ]

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            vt. 鼓励,促进,支持

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            purchase ['pə:tʃəs]

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            vt. 买,购买
            n. 购买,购买的物品

             
            provincial [prə'vinʃəl]

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            n. 乡下人,地方人民
            adj. 省的,地方的

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            funds

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            n. 基金;资金,现金(fund的复数) v. 提供资金

             
            eradication [iræfi'keiʃən]

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            n. 根除

             
            qualification [.kwɔlifi'keiʃən]

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            n. 资格,条件,限制

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            collection [kə'lekʃən]

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            n. 收集,收取,聚集,收藏品,募捐

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            mental ['mentl]

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            adj. 精神的,脑力的,精神错乱的
            n. 精

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            campaign [kæm'pein]

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            n. 运动,活动,战役,竞选运动
            v. 从事运

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            liability [.laiə'biliti]

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            n. 责任,可能性,债务,不利因素,倾向

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