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            《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书(5)(中英对照)

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            IV. Special Education and Inclusive Education

            四、特殊教育与融合教育
            China provides equal rights to education for persons with disabilities. The state has promulgated and revised the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities, included education for them in the "Outline of China's Plan for Medium- and Long-term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)", "China's Education Modernization 2035", and "Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period", and enacted two phases of the "Special Education Promotion Plan". All of this is designed to improve special education, develop inclusive education, and ultimately improve overall education for persons with disabilities.
            中国保障残疾人享有平等受教育权,颁布并修订《残疾人教育条例》,将残疾人教育纳入《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》《中国教育现代化2035》和《“十三五”推进基本公共服务均等化规划》,制定实施两期《特殊教育提升计划》,着力办好特殊教育,努力发展融合教育,提高残疾人受教育水平。
            The system of education for persons with disabilities has become more complete. In China, education for persons with disabilities is primarily managed by educational departments, assisted by civil affairs organs, disabled persons' federations, and social organizations. It covers preschool education, elementary education, secondary education, and higher education. Most children with disabilities attend school with children without disabilities or go to special education schools, and some receive education at home either with visiting teachers or through long-distance education programs. Both forms of education are available for coordinated implementation. A funding system has been put in place to cover children and students with disabilities from kindergarten to college. Since the fall semester in 2016, poor students with disabilities in regular senior high schools have been exempt from fees, so that they receive 12-year free education from elementary school to senior high school.
            残疾人教育体系日趋完备。中国残疾人教育以教育部门为办学主体,民政、残联和社会力量辅助,涵盖学前教育、初等教育、中等教育和高等教育。以普通学校随班就读为主体,以特殊教育学校为骨干,以送教上门和远程教育为补充,统筹推进,普特结合。建立起从幼儿园到高等院校的残疾儿童和残疾学生资助体系,自2016年秋季学期起,免除普通高中家庭经济困难残疾学生学杂费,从而实现家庭经济困难残疾学生从小学到高中阶段的12年免费教育。
            More children and teenagers with disabilities have received compulsory education. Based on the principle that all school-age children and teenagers with disabilities must go to school and none shall be denied schooling, the state has gone to great lengths to increase the capacity of special education schools and regular schools to accommodate more students with disabilities, as well as designating teachers to go to teach these students at their home. Through these efforts children and teenagers with disabilities enjoy the greatest possible right to compulsory education. The number of students at special education schools has grown significantly over the years, and children and teenagers with visual, hearing, intellectual and other types of impairments now have more chances of schooling than ever before. In 2018, 666,000 students with disabilities studied on campus, an increase of 298,000 persons, or 81 percent over 2013.
            残疾儿童少年义务教育普及水平显著提高。各地按照“全覆盖、零拒绝”的要求,通过提高特殊教育学校招生能力、扩大普通学校残疾学生随班就读规模及送教上门等多种方式,最大限度地保障适龄残疾儿童少年接受义务教育的权利。特殊教育在校生数量逐年大幅度上升,视力、听力、智力等各种类别的残疾儿童少年受教育机会明显增加。2018年,在校生66.6万人,比2013年增加29.8万人,增长81%。
            Non-compulsory education for persons with disabilities has made steady progress. The state has continued to expand the scale of preschool education for children with disabilities, encouraging regular kindergartens to enroll more of them and special education schools to open preschool courses or kindergartens. Preschool costs for disabled children from poor families have been included in funding programs for children. In 2016, more than 30,000 disabled children attending kindergartens received subsidies. From 2012 to 2018, about RMB310 million from the public welfare lotteries for persons with disabilities were used to support preschool education for 105,000 disabled children from poor families.
            残疾人非义务教育稳步发展。不断扩充残疾儿童学前教育规模,除普通幼儿园积极招收残疾儿童外,还鼓励特殊教育学校增设学前班或附属幼儿园,将家庭经济困难的残疾儿童接受学前教育纳入幼儿资助范围。2016年,3万多名在园残疾幼儿获得专门资助。2012年至2018年,残疾人事业彩票公益金助学项目共投入约3.1亿元,为10.5万人次家庭经济困难的残疾儿童提供学前教育资助。
            Senior high schools have opened special departments or classes for students with disabilities, so that they have more opportunities to receive senior high school education. The state has issued the "Directives on Accelerating the Development of Vocational Education for Persons with Disabilities". In 2018, China had 133 secondary vocational schools or classes with an enrollment of 19,475 students with disabilities. To develop higher education and provide more channels for students with disabilities, the state has issued the Regulations on the Participation of Persons with Disabilities in the National Exams for Regular Institutions of Higher Education, providing convenient access to exams, along with necessary support for students with disabilities. From 2012 to 2018, a total of 62,200 students with disabilities were enrolled into regular institutions of higher education.
            举办残疾人高中部(班),扩大残疾人接受高中教育的机会。制定《关于加快发展残疾人职业教育的若干意见》,加快发展残疾人职业教育。2018年,全国共有残疾人中等职业学校(班)133个,在校生19475人。稳步发展残疾人高等教育,努力畅通残疾人接受高等教育的渠道,制定《残疾人参加普通高等学校招生全国统一考试管理规定》,为残疾人参加高考提供合理便利和必要支持。2012年至2018年,全国共有6.22万残疾考生进入普通高等院校学习。
            Regarding admissions, to ensure that the rights of examinees with disabilities are fully protected, the Ministry of Education has clear regulations that colleges and universities shall not refuse students with physical disabilities as long as they can care for themselves, can complete their studies in the disciplines they have applied for, and their exam marks have reached the admission requirements. To provide more opportunities to students with disabilities, the Ministry of Education has ratified 22 higher education institutions to organize exams for them, and distinguished their admission plans from regular admissions. The state encourages institutions of higher education to open disciplines on special education. By June 2018, 61 colleges and universities with regular four-year undergraduate courses were running disciplines on special education, with some 10,000 students. In 2018, higher vocational colleges in China provided 37 programs on special education.
            在普通高校招生录取工作中,教育部明确要求,对肢体残疾、生活能够自理、能完成所报专业学习且高考成绩达到要求的考生,高校不能因其残疾而不予录取,切实维护残疾考生权利。为增加残障考生上大学机会,教育部批准同意22所高校面向残障考生采取单独考试、单列计划、单独录取,鼓励高校开设特殊教育专业。截至2018年6月,全国已有61所普通本科高校开设特殊教育专业,在校生1万余人。2018年,全国高职院校开设特殊教育专业点37个。
            Efforts have been made to develop inclusive education. In 2017, inclusive education was covered by the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities. Other policy papers, such as "China's Education Modernization 2035" and the "Phase-2 Special Education Promotion Plan (2017-2020)", have also called for developing inclusive education. Across China efforts have been made to provide the support necessary for students with disabilities to go to regular schools, such as building more classrooms with resources for special education at regular schools and recruiting full-time and part-time teachers of special education. As a result, the number of students with disabilities at regular schools has seen a steady increase, from 191,000 in 2013 to 332,000 in 2018, an increase of 73.8 percent. Over the past decade, more than 50 percent of students with disabilities have been able to study at regular schools.
            努力发展融合教育。2017年,融合教育首次写进《残疾人教育条例》。《中国教育现代化2035》和《第二期特殊教育提升计划(2017-2020年)》等文件均提出全面推进融合教育。各地不断完善随班就读支持保障体系,加强普通学校特殊教育资源教室建设,配备专兼职教师,在普通学校就读的残疾学生规模不断扩大。在普通学校就读的残疾学生数由2013年的19.1万人增加到2018年的33.2万人,增长73.8%。近10年来,残疾学生在普通学校就读的比例均超过50%。
            Public spending on special education has continued to grow. In the period from 2008 to 2015, the state introduced two construction programs for special education schools, investing RMB7.14 billion to build, renovate, or expand 1,182 special education schools in China's central and western regions, and to support improved facilities in 61 institutions of higher education, secondary vocational schools and special education normal schools. Since 2014, the central government has increased the subsidies for special education to RMB410 million per year to cover all areas outside of Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai.
            特殊教育公共支出持续增长。2008年至2015年,国家实施两期特殊教育学校建设项目,财政投入71.42亿元,新建、改扩建中西部地区1182所特殊教育学校,支持61所残疾人高等院校、中等职业学校和特殊师范院校改善办学条件。自2014年开始,中央特教专项补助经费提高到每年4.1亿元,支持范围由中西部地区扩大到除京津沪以外的所有省份。
            Public spending on students with disabilities in compulsory education at regular and special education schools has increased to RMB6,000 per person per year. In some areas, teachers of disabled students at regular schools, and those teaching home-schooled students, receive subsidies for special education teachers. In addition to state policies already in place, such as exemption from tuition and fees, free textbooks, and living subsidies for poor students in compulsory education, students with disabilities have also received subsidies from local governments, and the standards of the subsidies are improving. In some provinces and municipalities directly under the central government, students with disabilities enjoy free education from elementary to senior high school. East China Normal University and four other colleges and universities have been selected to carry out a special education program to train excellent special education teachers, and the State Training Program for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers has sub-programs for training presidents and teachers of special education schools. By 2018 the program had trained 726 presidents and 10,298 teachers.
            全国义务教育阶段在普通学校和特殊教育学校就读的残疾学生年生均公用经费标准提高到6000元。部分地区将普通学校随班就读教师、送教上门教师纳入享受特教津贴范围。在国家针对城乡义务教育学生免除学杂费、免费提供教科书、对家庭经济困难学生补助生活费的基础上,各省市还增加了对残疾学生的资助项目,并逐步提高资助标准。部分省市实施残疾学生从小学到高中免费教育。遴选确定华东师范大学等5所院校实施卓越特殊教育教师培养改革项目,在“国培计划”中专设特教学校校长和骨干教师培养项目。截至2018年,培训特教学校骨干教师10298名、校长726名。

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            organize ['ɔ:gənaiz]

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            v. 组织

             
            distinguished [di'stiŋgwiʃt]

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            adj. 卓著的,尊敬的 动词distinguish的过

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            n. 改革,改良

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            vi. 使自己适应
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