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            《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书(2)(中英对照)

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            I. Development of the Cause of Persons with Disabilities

            一、残疾人事业发展历程
            In the 70 years since it was founded, the PRC has taken into full consideration its realities and actual conditions, and developed its own strategy for protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. It has worked tirelessly to promote the rights of persons with disabilities, protect their dignity, and ensure they participate equally in the nation's politics, economy, and social and cultural life.
            中华人民共和国成立70年来,中国从国情和实际出发,努力促进和保护残疾人权利和尊严,保障残疾人平等参与经济、政治、社会和文化生活,走出了一条具有中国特色的残疾人事业发展道路。
            Equal status for persons with disabilities. After the founding of the PRC, persons with disabilities got equal status with others politically, with the same lawful rights and obligations as all other citizens. The state promulgated the Provisional Regulations on Pensions and Preferential Treatments for Service Veterans with Disabilities, giving special guarantees to disabled service veterans in terms of rehabilitation, medical treatment, and their life, education, and employment. Welfare and mental institutions were established to take in persons with severe disabilities and without family, orphans with disabilities, elderly persons with disabilities, persons with mental disabilities, and disabled servicemen. With the introduction of special education schools for children with visual and hearing impairments and speech disorders, the government included special education for persons with disabilities in the national educational system.
            残疾人获得平等地位。新中国成立以后,残疾人在政治上获得了和其他人一样的地位,享受应有的公民权利和义务。中国政府公布实施《革命残废军人优待抚恤暂行条例》等法规,对伤残军人等伤残人员的休养、治疗、生活、学习、工作给予特殊保障;建立福利机构和精神病院,收养或安置无依无靠的重度残疾人、残疾孤儿、残疾老人、精神残疾人和残疾军人;兴办了盲童学校、聋哑学校等特殊教育学校,确立了特殊教育在国民教育体系中的地位。
            In rural areas, eligible disabled persons without the ability to work beganto be guaranteed food, clothing, housing, medical care, burial services or education by collective economic organizations. In cities, persons with disabilities were provided with jobs at welfare factories and other similar units. China explored the socialized management of the affairs of persons with disabilities, establishing the China Blind Persons' Welfare Society in 1953, the China Deaf-mutes Welfare Society in 1956, and the China Association of the Blind and Deaf in 1960. Most provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government set up local associations and community-level organizations for persons with disabilities, who began to manage their own affairs. In both urban and rural areas, more persons with disabilities got jobs; they became more involved in cultural and sports activities, and their life began to improve.
            在农村,对符合条件的失去劳动能力的残疾人由集体经济组织给予“五保”待遇(即保吃、保穿、保住、保医、保葬或保教);在城市,兴办福利工厂、福利生产单位安排残疾人就业。探索社会化管理方式,1953年成立中国盲人福利会,1956年成立中国聋哑人福利会,1960年在此基础上成立中国盲人聋哑人协会。大部分省、自治区、直辖市也建立起地方协会和基层组织,残疾人开始参与自身事务的管理。全国城乡劳动就业的残疾人增多,文化体育活动有所开展,残疾人生活初步改善。
            Championing the programs of persons with disabilities since reform and opening-up. Since reform and opening up was initiated in 1978, the CPC and the Chinese government have introduced a series of major measures to champion the programs of persons with disabilities and improve their lives. These include: founding of the China Foundation for Disabled Persons in 1984, the first national sample survey on disability in 1987, founding of the China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF) in 1988, and promulgation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities and the first five-year program for China's cause of these people in 1991. Entering the 21st century, as the country moved faster toward a moderately prosperous society, the cause of persons with disabilities also advanced in all respects.
            残疾人事业在改革开放中兴起。改革开放以来,中国共产党和中国政府实施了一系列发展残疾人事业、改善残疾人状况的重大举措。1984年成立中国残疾人福利基金会,1987年开展第一次全国残疾人抽样调查,1988年成立中国残疾人联合会(简称“中国残联”),1991年颁布实施《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》并第一次制定实施中国残疾人事业五年计划纲要。进入21世纪,国家加快推进全面小康社会建设,残疾人事业全面提升。
            In 2008, the "Directives of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Promoting the Cause of Persons with Disabilities" was issued, and the Law of the People's Republicof China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities was revised. Promoting the interests of persons with disabilities, from being part of social welfare in the form of relief in the late 1970s and early 1980s, has evolved into an encompassing network covering rehabilitation, education, employment, poverty alleviation, social security, rights protection, culture, sports, accessible environment, and disability prevention. The environment has improved for persons with disabilities to join in social life, and their political, economic, cultural and social rights are respected and guaranteed. There has been a fundamental change in the life and work of persons with disabilities, who have evolved from recipients of relief in the past to a main body involved in relevant activities, and an important force for social and economic progress. In the course of reform and development, many persons with disabilities, for example Zhang Haidi, have become role models who embody the spirit of the Chinese nation and of the times.
            2008年出台《中共中央 国务院关于促进残疾人事业发展的意见》,同年修订《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》。残疾人事业由改革开放初期以救济为主的社会福利工作,逐步发展成为包括康复、教育、就业、扶贫、社会保障、维权、文化、体育、无障碍环境建设、残疾预防等领域的综合性社会事业。残疾人参与社会生活的环境大为改善,残疾人的经济、政治、文化和社会权利得到尊重和保障;残疾人的面貌发生根本性变化,由被动的受助者变为积极参与的主体,成为经济社会发展的一支重要力量,在改革和发展中涌现出一大批像张海迪那样的体现民族精神和时代风貌的优秀残疾人。
            New progress in the cause of persons with disabilities. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as its core has given more care and attention to persons with disabilities. In 2014 and 2019, Xi met with representatives from model units for helping persons with disabilities, and with individual role models of self-reliance and hard work, pointing the direction for China's work for persons with disabilities. In 2014, in his letter to congratulate the China Foundation for Disabled Persons on its 30th anniversary, Xi said that persons with disabilities were a special group in need of extra care and attention. In 2017, in his congratulatory letter to the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 2013-2022, Xi said that China would continue to champion the cause of persons with disabilities, so that they could develop in an all-round way and achieve common prosperity.
            残疾人事业迈上新台阶。中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央对残疾人格外关心、格外关注。2014年、2019年习近平两次会见全国自强模范暨助残先进集体和个人表彰大会受表彰代表,为我国残疾人事业发展指明方向,2014年向中国残疾人福利基金会成立30周年发去贺信提出“残疾人是一个特殊困难的群体,需要格外关心、格外关注”,2017年向2013-2022年亚太残疾人十年中期审查高级别政府间会议致贺信提出“中国将进一步发展残疾人事业,促进残疾人全面发展和共同富裕”,
            In 2016, during an inspection trip to Tangshan, Hebei Province, he said that in the course of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, not a single person with disabilities should be left behind. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, work related to persons with disabilities has become an important part of the Five-point Strategy (promoting economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress) and the Four-pronged Strategy (to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, to further reform, to advance the rule of law, and to strengthen Party discipline). The state has established a special welfare system for tens of millions of persons with disabilities, including living subsidies, nursing subsidies, and subsidies for children's rehabilitation. Persons with disabilities from poor households in rural areas, numbering in the millions, have become a focus in the final fight against poverty, and we should accurately apply policies and give them special assistance.
            2016年在河北省唐山市考察时提出“2020年全面建成小康社会,残疾人一个也不能少”的任务目标。自中共十八大以来,残疾人工作成为“五位一体”总体布局和“四个全面”战略布局的重要内容。在国家层面建立起覆盖数千万残疾人口,包含生活补贴、护理补贴、儿童康复补贴等内容的残疾人专项福利制度;在全国范围内将数百万农村贫困残疾人脱贫作为打赢脱贫攻坚战的重点,精准施策、特别扶助;
            In the Healthy China initiative, we should pay particular attention to each individual with disabilities and make sure everyone has access to health services. Public services for persons with disabilities have been included in the national system of basic public services, and efforts will continue to provide basic public services to them, improve weaker links, and enhance service quality. As all trades and walks of life strive to eliminate barriers, more and more persons with disabilities are receiving better education, which enable them to find jobs, start businesses, and participate in social life more equally. As the whole nation works to achieve the goals of "equality, participation and sharing" for persons with disabilities, Chinese society is more readily available to care for and help them. The cause of persons with disabilities is picking up speed, and these people are enjoying a greater sense of gain, happiness, and security.
            在实施“健康中国”战略中高度重视和关注每个残疾人的健康问题,加快实现“人人享有健康服务”目标;将残疾人基本公共服务纳入国家基本公共服务体系,持续推进残疾人基本公共服务托底补短工作,不断提高残疾人基本公共服务供给水平;各行各业、社会各个方面都在努力消除障碍,越来越多的残疾人接受更好教育、实现就业创业、平等参与社会。残疾人“平等、参与、共享”的目标得到更好实现,关心帮助残疾人的社会氛围更加浓厚,残疾人事业发展进入了快车道,残疾人获得感、幸福感、安全感持续提升,残疾人事业整体发展水平迈上一个新台阶。

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