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            《新时代的中国国防》白皮书(11)(中英对照)

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            Properly Coping with Disputes over Territory and Maritime Demarcation

            妥善处理领土问题和海洋划界争端
            Upholding amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness in its neighborhood diplomacy, China is committed to building an amicable relationship and partnership with its neighbors, and peaceful resolution of disputes over territory and maritime demarcation through negotiation and consultation. China has settled its border issues with 12 of its 14 land neighbors and signed treaties on good-neighborliness, friendship and cooperation with 8 countries on its periphery.
            中国秉持亲诚惠容的周边外交理念,坚持与邻为善、以邻为伴,通过谈判协商和平解决领土问题和海洋划界争端。中国已经同14个陆上邻国中的12个国家解决了陆地边界问题,同周边8个国家签署睦邻友好合作条约。
            China holds it a priority to manage differences and enhance mutual trust in maintaining the stability of its neighborhood. China has proposed a China-ASEAN defense ministers' hotline and established direct defense telephone links with Vietnam and the ROK. It has kept contact through telephone or fax, and conducted border meetings and joint patrols, with the militaries of the countries on its land borders on regular or irregular basis. Since 2014, five high-level border meetings between China and Vietnam have been held. To implement the important consensus reached by the leaders of China and India, the two militaries have exchanged high-level visits and pushed for a hotline for border defense cooperation and mechanisms for border management and border defense exchanges. Since the second half of 2016, China and the Philippines have increased dialogue on maritime security, bringing the two sides back on track in addressing the South China Sea issue through friendly consultation. In May 2018, the defense authorities of China and Japan signed a memorandum of understanding on maritime and air liaison and put it into practice in June.
            中国把管控分歧、增进互信作为维护周边稳定的重要内容,倡议建立中国-东盟防长热线,同越南、韩国分别建立国防部直通电话,定期或不定期同陆地接壤国家军队开展电话传真联系、边境会谈会晤、联合巡逻等。2014年以来,中国同越南先后举行5次边境高层会晤。中印两军落实两国领导人重要共识,开展高层访问沟通,推动建立边防热线电话和边境管控、边防交流机制。2016年下半年以来,中国同菲律宾加强海上安全对话,双方重回通过友好协商处理南海问题的正确轨道。2018年5月,中日两国防务部门签署海空联络机制备忘录并于6月启动运行该机制。
            China and the ASEAN countries have comprehensively and effectively implemented the DOC, and actively advanced the consultations on the COC. They are committed to extending practical maritime security cooperation, developing regional security mechanisms and building the South China Sea into a sea of peace, friendship and cooperation.
            中国同东盟国家全面有效落实《南海各方行为宣言》,积极推进“南海行为准则”磋商,加强海上安全务实合作,推进地区安全机制建设,努力将南海打造成为和平之海、友谊之海、合作之海。
            Actively Providing International Public Security Goods
            积极提供国际公共安全产品
            China actively supports the UNPKOs. It is a major contributor to the UN peacekeeping budget and the largest troop contributing country among the permanent members of the UNSC. As of December 2018, China has participated in 24 UN peacekeeping missions and has contributed more than 39,000 peacekeepers. 13 Chinese military personnel have sacrificed their lives in the UNPKOs. In the missions, China's peacekeepers have built and repaired over 13,000 kilometers of roads, cleared and disposed of 10,342 mines and various items of unexploded ordnance, transported more than 1.35 million tons of materials over a total distance of more than 13 million kilometers, treated over 170,000 patients, and fulfilled over 300 armed escorts and long or short-distance patrols.
            中国积极支持联合国维和行动,是联合国维和行动的主要出资国之一,是安理会常任理事国中第一大出兵国。截至2018年12月,中国军队已累计参加24项联合国维和行动,派出维和军事人员3.9万余人次,13名中国军人牺牲在维和一线。中国军队在维和任务区新建、修复道路1.3万余千米,排除地雷及各类未爆物10342枚;运送物资135万余吨,运输总里程1300万余千米;接诊病人17万余人次;完成武装护卫、长短途巡逻等任务300余次。
            In September 2015, China joined the UN Peacekeeping Capability Readiness System (PCRS) and built a peacekeeping standby force of 8,000 troops. In September 2017, China completed the registration of PCRS Level 1. In October 2018, 13 Chinese PCRS Level 1 units scored high in the UN assessment and were elevated to PCRS Level 2. Five among these units were elevated from Level 2 to Level 3 in February 2019. China has made active efforts to train international peacekeepers and trained over 1,500 individuals from dozens of countries. In December 2018, 2,506 peacekeepers from the PLA served in 7 UN missions and in the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations.
            2015年9月,中国加入新的联合国维和能力待命机制,建设8000人规模维和待命部队。2017年9月,中国完成维和待命部队在联合国的一级待命注册工作。2018年10月,13支一级待命分队全部高标准通过联合国组织的考核评估,晋升至二级待命状态。2019年2月,联合国将上述13支二级待命状态分队中的5支分队提升至三级待命状态。中国积极为各国培训维和人员,目前已经为数十个国家培训了1500余名维和人员。2018年12月,2506名中国官兵在联合国7个任务区及联合国维和行动部执行任务。
            In line with relevant UNSC resolutions, since December 2008, the Chinese government has dispatched naval ships to carry out regular vessel protection operations in the Gulf of Aden and the waters off the coast of Somalia. Chinese PLAN task groups cooperate with multiple naval forces in the area to safeguard international SLOCs. In the past decade, over 100 vessels and 26,000 officers and sailors have been regularly deployed in 31 convoys, each consisting of three to four ships, in vessel protection operations. They have provided security protection for over 6,600 Chinese and foreign ships, and rescued, protected or assisted over 70 ships in distress.
            根据联合国安理会有关决议,中国政府于2008年12月起派遣海军舰艇编队赴亚丁湾、索马里海域实施常态化护航行动,与多国护航力量进行合作,共同维护国际海上通道安全。10年来,中国海军常态部署3至4艘舰艇执行护航任务,共派出31批100余艘次舰艇、2.6万余名官兵,为6600余艘中外船舶提供安全保护,解救、接护、救助遇险船舶70余艘。
            China's armed forces take an active part in the international efforts for HADR. Military professionals are dispatched to conduct disaster relief operations in affected countries, provide relief materials and medical aid, and strengthen international exchanges in this respect. Since 2012, China's armed forces have participated in the search for the missing Malaysian Airliner MH370, and in the relief operations for Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines, the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the water scarcity in Maldives, the earthquake in Nepal, and the flood caused by a dam collapse in Laos. Since it entered service a decade ago, the PLAN's hospital ship Ark Peace has fulfilled 7 voyages coded as Mission Harmony and visited 43 countries. During these visits, it provided medical services to the local communities, organized medical exchanges, and helped over 230,000 people.
            中国军队积极参加国际灾难救援和人道主义援助,派遣专业救援力量赴受灾国救援减灾,提供救援物资和医疗救助,加强救援减灾国际交流。2012年以来,组织或参加马航MH370失联航班搜救、菲律宾“海燕”台风救援、抗击西非埃博拉疫情、马尔代夫水荒救援、尼泊尔抗震救灾、老挝水灾溃坝救援等多项行动。中国海军“和平方舟”号医院船服役10年来,执行7次“和谐使命”任务,共访问43个国家,为到访国民众提供医疗服务,组织医学交流,惠及民众23万余人次。
            China is active in international and regional counter-terrorism cooperation. It has strengthened such cooperation within the framework of the SCO. China hosts and participates in joint counter-terrorism exercises, cracks down on illegal trafficking of weapons, ammunition and explosives, cooperates with SCO members to identify and cut off channels for terrorist infiltration, and promotes international counter-terrorism intelligence exchange and information sharing. It hosts the Great Wall International Forum on Counter-Terrorism, and actively participates in multilateral counter-terrorism mechanisms such as the APEC Counter-Terrorism Working Group and the Global Counter-Terrorism Forum. Bilateral counter-terrorism consultations have been held with certain countries. China initiated the establishment of the Quadrilateral Cooperation and Coordination Mechanism (QCCM), a counter-terrorism cooperation and coordination mechanism by the militaries of Afghanistan, China, Pakistan and Tajikistan. The QCCM has convenedtwo military leaders' meetings and conducted counter-terrorism exchange and cooperation, actively safeguarding regional security.
            中国积极开展国际和地区反恐合作。加强上海合作组织框架内的国际反恐合作,组织开展反恐联合演习,打击非法贩运武器、弹药和爆炸物品,合作查明和切断人员渗透渠道,推动国际反恐情报交流共享。主办以反恐为主题的“长城”国际论坛,积极参与亚太经合组织反恐工作组、全球反恐论坛等多边反恐机制。同有关国家举行双边反恐磋商。推动创建阿富汗、中国、巴基斯坦、塔吉克斯坦四国军队反恐合作协调机制,举行两届军队高级领导人会议,开展反恐交流合作,积极维护地区安全。
            Closing Remarks
            结束语
            Peace is an aspiration for all peoples, and development is an eternal theme of humanity. Faced with global security challenges that are becoming ever more intricate and choices that have to be made at a crossroads of human development, China firmly believes that hegemony and expansion are doomed to failure, and security and prosperity shall be shared. China will remain committed to peaceful development and work with people of all countries to safeguard world peace and promote common development.
            和平是各国人民的共同愿望,发展是人类社会的永恒主题。面对日益复杂的全球性安全挑战,面对人类发展在十字路口何去何从的抉择,中国坚信,称霸扩张终将失败,安全繁荣应该共享。中国将坚持走和平发展道路,同各国人民一道维护世界和平、促进共同发展。
            Guided by Xi Jinping's thinking on strengthening the military, China's national defense in the new era will stride forward along its own path to build a stronger military and endeavor to achieve the great goal of developing world-class forces in an all-round way. China's armed forces have the determination, confidence and capability to prevail over all threats and challenges. They stand ready to provide strong strategic support for the realization of the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, and to make new and greater contributions to the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.
            新时代的中国国防,在习近平强军思想指引下,将沿着中国特色强军之路,向着全面建成世界一流军队的宏伟目标奋勇前进。中国军队有决心有信心有能力战胜一切威胁挑战,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供坚强战略支撑,为服务构建人类命运共同体作出新的更大贡献。

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            identify [ai'dentifai]

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            vt. 识别,认明,鉴定
            vi. 认同,感同身

             
            confidence ['kɔnfidəns]

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            adj. 骗得信任的
            n. 信任,信心,把握

            联想记忆
            promote [prə'məut]

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            vt. 促进,提升,升迁; 发起; 促销

            联想记忆
            border ['bɔ:də]

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            n. 边界,边境,边缘
            vt. 与 ... 接

             
            community [kə'mju:niti]

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            n. 社区,社会,团体,共同体,公众,[生]群落

            联想记忆
            consultation [.kɔnsəl'teiʃən]

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            n. 请教,咨询,协议会

             
            mechanism ['mekənizəm]

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            n. 机制,原理
            n. 机械,机构,结构

             
            stride [straid]

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            n. 步伐,一大步,大步走,进步
            vt. 跨骑

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            theme [θi:m]

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            n. 题目,主题

             
            negotiation [ni.gəuʃi'eiʃən]

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            n. 谈判,协商

            联想记忆
            

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