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            《新时代的中国国防》白皮书(10)(中英对照)

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            VI. Actively Contributing to Building a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind

            六、积极服务构建人类命运共同体
            Building a community with a shared future for mankind conforms to the trends of the times for peaceful development, and reflects the common aspirations of all peoples throughout the world. China's armed forces have responded faithfully to the call for a community with a shared future for mankind. They are actively fulfilling the international obligations of the armed forces of a major country, comprehensively promoting international military cooperation for the new era, and striving for a better world of lasting peace and common security.
            构建人类命运共同体,顺应和平发展的时代潮流,反映各国人民共同期待。中国军队忠实践行人类命运共同体理念,积极履行大国军队国际责任,全面推进新时代国际军事合作,努力为建设持久和平、普遍安全的美好世界作贡献。
            Resolutely Upholding the Purposes and Principles of the UN Charter
            坚定维护联合国宪章宗旨和原则
            As a founding member of the United Nations and a permanent member of the UNSC, China unswervingly endorses the central role of the UN in international affairs, and resolutely upholds international law and the basic norms governing international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. It firmly maintains multilateralism, advances democracy in international relations, participates extensively in global security governance, actively engages in arms control and disarmament, and endeavors to offer Chinese proposals for resolving major issues and formulating important rules.
            作为联合国创始成员国和安理会常任理事国,中国坚定维护联合国在国际事务中的核心作用,坚定维护以联合国宪章宗旨和原则为基础的国际法和国际关系基本准则,坚定维护多边主义,推动国际关系民主化,广泛参与全球安全治理,积极参与军控与裁军等领域事务,为重大问题解决和重要规则制定贡献中国方案。
            China has played a constructive role in the political settlement of regional hotspots such as the Korean Peninsula issue, the Iranian nuclear issue and Syrian issue. China opposes hegemony, unilateralism and double standards, promotes dialogues and consultations, and fully and earnestly implements UNSC resolutions. China has actively participated in multilateral dialogues and negotiations on cyberspace and outer space, and pushed for the formulation of widely accepted international rules that are fair and equitable.
            中国建设性参与朝鲜半岛问题、伊朗核问题、叙利亚问题等地区热点问题政治解决,反对霸权主义、单边主义、双重标准,推动对话协商并全面认真执行联合国安理会决议。中国积极参与网络、外层空间等领域多边对话谈判,推动制定普遍接受、公正合理的国际规则。
            China actively participates in international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. China objects to arms race and strives to protect global strategic balance and stability. To this end, China has signed or acceded to dozens of relevant multilateral treaties including the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2015 China announced the establishment of the USD1 billion China-UN Peace and Development Fund in the following decade, which was officially put into operation in 2016.
            中国一贯积极参与国际军控、裁军和防扩散努力,反对军备竞赛,维护全球战略平衡和稳定,签署或加入了《不扩散核武器条约》等数十个多边军控、裁军和防扩散条约。2015年起,中国宣布设立为期10年、总额10亿美元的中国-联合国和平与发展基金,并于2016年正式投入运行。
            Building a New-Model Security Partnership Featuring Equality, Mutual Trust and Win-Win Cooperation
            推动构建平等互信、合作共赢的新型安全伙伴关系
            China actively develops constructive relationships with foreign militaries. A new configuration of foreign military relations which is all-dimensional, wide-ranging and multi-tiered is taking shape. China has engaged in military exchanges with more than 150 countries and set up 130 offices of military attachés and military representatives at Chinese diplomatic missions abroad, while 116 countries have established military attaché's offices in China. In addition, China has put in place 54 defense consultation and dialogue mechanisms with 41 countries and international organizations. Since 2012, high level Chinese military delegations have visited over 60 countries, and defense ministers and commanders-in-chief from over 100 countries have visited China.
            中国积极发展对外建设性军事关系,形成全方位宽领域多层次军事外交新格局。中国迄今已同150多个国家开展军事交往,在驻外使馆(团)设有130个驻外武官机构,116个国家在中国设立武官处,同41个国家和国际组织建立防务磋商对话机制54项。2012年以来,中国军队高级军事代表团出访60多个国家,有100多个国家国防部长、军队总司令来访。
            The military relationship between China and Russia continues to develop at a high level, enriching the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era and playing a significant role in maintaining global strategic stability. The Chinese and Russian militaries have continued the sound development of exchange mechanisms at all levels, expanded cooperation in high-level exchanges, military training, equipment, technology and counter-terrorism, and realized positive interaction and coordination on international and multilateral occasions. Since 2012, Chinese and Russian militaries have held 7 rounds of strategic consultations. From August to September 2018, at the invitation of the Russian side, the PLA participated in Russia's Vostok strategic exercise for the first time.
            中俄两军关系持续保持高位运行,为两国新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系不断充实新内涵,对维护全球战略稳定具有重要意义。中俄两军各层级交流机制持续健康推进,在高层交往、军事训练、装备技术、反恐等领域深入合作,在国际多边场合实现良好互动和配合。2012年以来,中俄两军先后举行7轮战略磋商。2018年8月至9月,中国军队应俄方邀请,首次参加俄罗斯“东方”战略演习。
            China actively and properly handles its military relationship with the US in accordance with the principles of non-conflict, non-confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation. It strives to make the military-to-military relationship a stabilizer for the relations between the two countries and hence contribute to the China-US relationship based on coordination, cooperation and stability. In 2014, China's Ministry of National Defense (MND) and the US Department of Defense signed the Memorandum of Understanding on Notification of Major Military Activities and Confidence-Building Measures Mechanism and the Memorandum of Understanding Regarding the Rules of Behavior for Safety of Air and Maritime Encounters. In 2015, the two countries agreed on the annexes on the military crisis notification mechanism and the rules of behavior for safety in air-to-air encounters.
            中国按照不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的原则,积极稳妥处理同美国的军事关系,努力使两军关系成为两国关系的稳定器,为推进以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系作出贡献。2014年两国国防部签署建立重大军事行动相互通报信任措施机制和海空相遇安全行为准则两个谅解备忘录,2015年双方就新增“军事危机通报”“空中相遇”附件达成共识,
            In 2017, the two countries established a diplomatic and security dialogue and joint staff dialogue mechanism with a view to actively strengthening strategic communication and managing risks and differences. The two militaries carry out institutionalized exchanges between the defense authorities, armies, navies and air forces, as well as practical cooperation in HADR, counter-piracy, and exchanges between academic institutions. China resolutely opposes the wrong practices and provocative activities of the US side regarding arms sales to Taiwan, sanctions on the CMC Equipment Development Department and its leadership, illegal entry into China's territorial waters and maritime and air spaces near relevant islands and reefs, and wide-range and frequent close-in reconnaissance. However, in China-US relations, the military-to-military relationship remains the generally stable one.
            2017年两国建立外交安全对话、联合参谋部对话机制,积极加强战略沟通、管控风险分歧。双方在防务部门、陆军、海军、空军等层面开展机制性交流,在人道主义救援减灾、反海盗、院校交流等领域开展务实合作。中国坚决反对美国售台武器、制裁中国中央军委装备发展部及该部负责人、擅闯中国领海及有关岛礁邻近海空域、实施大范围高强度抵近侦察等错误做法和挑衅行为。在中美关系中,两军关系保持了总体稳定。
            With a commitment to building a community with a shared future in its neighborhood, China endeavors to deepen military partnership with its neighbors. The PLA keeps close contacts with the military leaderships of the neighboring countries. Given more than 40 reciprocal military visits at and above service commander level every year, high-level military exchanges have covered almost all of China's neighbors and contributed to growing strategic mutual trust. China has set up defense and security consultations as well as working meeting mechanisms with 17 neighboring countries to keep exchange channels open. In recent years, China has regularly held serial joint exercises and training on counter-terrorism, peacekeeping, search and rescue, and tactical skills with its neighboring countries, and carried out extensive exchanges and practical cooperation on border and coastal defense, academic institutions, think tanks, education, training, medical science, medical service, and equipment and technology. In addition, defense cooperation with ASEAN countries is moving forward. The military relationships between China and its neighboring countries are generally stable.
            中国着眼打造周边命运共同体,深化同周边国家军事伙伴关系。同周边国家军队高层保持密切交往,每年军种司令以上级别团组往来达40余批次,基本实现周边高层交往全覆盖,战略互信不断加强。同17个周边国家建立防务安全磋商和工作会晤机制,沟通渠道保持畅通。近年来,中国同周边国家常态组织反恐、维和、救援和军兵种技战术等系列联合演习和训练,广泛开展边防海防、院校智库、教育训练、医学医疗、装备技术等交流,务实合作不断深入,同东盟防务合作水平不断提升,同周边国家军事关系总体稳定。
            China is actively developing its military relations with European countries. Exchanges and cooperation in all areas are making sound progress. Targeting a China-Europe partnership for peace, growth, reform and civilization, China conducts security policy dialogues, joint counter-piracy exercises and personnel training with the EU. In 2016, China held a desktop exercise on non-combatant evacuation with the UK and a joint military medical exercise with Germany. In 2018, China and the EU held the third China-EU high-level seminar on security policy.
            中国积极发展同欧洲国家军事关系,各领域交流合作保持积极发展势头。着眼打造中欧和平、增长、改革、文明四大伙伴关系,中国同欧盟举行安全政策对话、反海盗联合演练、人员培训等。2016年,中国同英国举行联合撤侨室内推演,同德国举行卫勤实兵联合演习。2018年,中国同欧盟举行第三届中欧高级别安全政策研讨班。
            China is strengthening military exchanges with developing countries in Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and the South Pacific by carrying out personnel training, conducting exchanges between mid-and-junior level officers, and providing assistance in military development and defense capabilities. In Beijing in 2018, China hosted the China-Africa Defense and Security Forum, the China and Latin-America High-level Defense Forum, and the Forum for Senior Defense Officials from Caribbean and South Pacific Countries.
            中国加强同非洲、拉美和加勒比、南太平洋等地区发展中国家的军事交往,开展人员培训和中青年军官交流,帮助有关国家加强军队建设、提高防御能力。2018年,在北京举办中非防务安全论坛、中拉高级防务论坛、中加(勒比)南(太平洋)高级防务研讨班。
            The PLA adheres to the principles of mutual trust, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation in carrying out pragmatic exchanges and cooperation with foreign militaries. Since 2012, China has held over 100 joint exercises and training with more than 30 countries. These engagements have covered traditional and non-traditional security fields, in locations extending from China's periphery to the far seas, and the participating forces have expanded from land forces to multiple branches including the army, navy and air force. Cooperation and exchanges in personnel training have intensified. Since 2012, the PLA has sent over 1,700 military personnel to study in more than 50 countries. Over 20 Chinese military educational institutions have established and maintained inter-collegiate exchanges with their counterparts from more than 40 countries. Meanwhile, more than 10,000 foreign military personnel from over 130 countries have studied in Chinese military universities and colleges.
            中国军队坚持互信互惠、合作共赢的原则,同世界各国军队开展务实交流合作。2012年以来,中国同30多个国家举行百余次联合演习与训练,演练内容从非传统安全领域发展到传统安全领域,演练地域从中国周边延伸至远海,参演力量从以陆军为主拓展至陆海空多军兵种。中国军队积极组织人才培养交流合作,2012年以来,向50多个国家派出军事留学生1700余名,20余所军队院校分别同40多个国家的院校建立和保持了校际交流关系,共接纳130多个国家的上万名军事人员到中国军队院校学习。
            China's armed forces work to improve mechanisms for information release in order to comprehensively and objectively explain China's national defense and military development to domestic and international audiences. In April 2011, China's MND started to convene monthly press conferences to release important information on national defense and the military. Since 2012, multiple thematic press conferences have been held to brief on important events such as national defense and military reform and downsizing the PLA. The MND has organized multiple visits to and interviews with PLA units and academic institutions for nearly 100 domestic and foreign media. Since they were launched in May 2015, the official Weibo and WeChat accounts of the MND Information Office have attracted over 6 million followers.
            完善军事新闻发布机制,全面客观向国内外介绍说明中国国防和军队建设情况。2011年4月,建立国防部月度例行记者会制度,定期发布国防和军队建设重要信息。2012年以来,围绕深化国防和军队改革、裁减军队员额等重大事项,召开多场专题新闻发布会。组织近百家中外媒体多次赴部队、军事院校参观采访。2015年5月,“国防部发布”官方微博微信正式开通,关注人数已达600余万。
            Building a Regional Security Cooperation Architecture
            推动构建地区安全合作架构
            In June 2001, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan co-founded the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The SCO has now grown into a new type of comprehensive regional cooperation organization covering the largest area and population in the world. The Shanghai Spirit featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, consultation, respect for diverse civilizations and pursuit of common development has come into being. With its commitment to building an SCO community with a shared future and developing a new model of international relations, the organization has made a new contribution to regional peace and development. In June 2017, the SCO expanded for the first time and admitted India and Pakistan as member states. In April 2018, China hosted the first SCO Defense Ministers' Meeting since the organization expanded its membership. The member states continue to strengthen defense and security exchanges and cooperation, including Peace Mission exercises, and Fanfare for Peace militarytattoos, to further promote good-neighborliness and strategic mutual trust, increase military cultural exchanges, and enhance unity and friendship.
            2001年6月,中国同哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、俄罗斯、塔吉克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦共同发起成立上海合作组织。上海合作组织已成为世界上幅员最广、人口最多的综合性新型区域合作组织,形成互信、互利、平等、协商、尊重多样文明、谋求共同发展的“上海精神”,推动构建上海合作组织命运共同体,推动建设新型国际关系,为地区和平与发展作出了新贡献。2017年6月,上海合作组织首次扩员,印度和巴基斯坦成为上海合作组织成员国。2018年4月,举行上海合作组织扩员后首次国防部长会议。上海合作组织成员国持续加强防务安全领域交流合作,举行“和平使命”系列演习,举办“和平号角”军乐节,深化睦邻友好和战略互信,加强军事文化交流,增进成员国团结友谊。
            China actively supports the institutional development of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), advocates common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security in Asia, and plays an important role in building an Asian security cooperation architecture.
            中国积极支持亚洲相互协作与信任措施会议机制建设,倡导树立共同、综合、合作、可持续的亚洲安全观,为构建亚洲地区安全合作架构发挥了重要作用。
            In the principles of openness, inclusiveness and pragmatic cooperation, China actively participates in multilateral dialogues and cooperation mechanisms including the ADMM-Plus, ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), Shangri-La Dialogue, Jakarta International Defense Dialogue and Western Pacific Naval Symposium, regularly holds China-ASEAN defense ministers' informal meetings, and proposes and constructively promotes initiatives to strengthen regional defense cooperation. The China-ASEAN Maritime Exercise-2018, the first between Chinese and ASEAN militaries, was held in October 2018 and demonstrated the confidence and determination of the countries in maintaining regional peace and stability.
            中国本着开放包容、务实合作的原则,积极参加东盟防长扩大会、东盟地区论坛、香格里拉对话会、雅加达国际防务对话会、西太平洋海军论坛等多边对话和合作机制,常态化举行中国-东盟防长非正式会晤,建设性提出加强地区防务安全合作的倡议。2018年10月,举行中国-东盟“海上联演-2018”演习,这是中国军队与东盟国家军队首次举行海上演习,彰显了中国同东盟国家致力于维护地区和平稳定的信心和决心。
            China has initiated the Xiangshan Forum, a platform of exchange based in Beijing, in the spirit of equality, openness, inclusiveness and mutual learning. In 2014, the Xiangshan Forum was upgraded to a track-1.5 platform of international security and defense dialogue. In October 2018, the Xiangshan Forum was renamed the Beijing Xiangshan Forum. More than 500 participants from 67 countries and 7 international organizations attended the forum and exchanged new ideas and approaches for addressing regional security threats and challenges. Their discussions have played an active role in promoting security dialogue and mutual trust in the Asia-Pacific region.
            中国秉持平等、开放、包容、互鉴的精神,搭建北京香山论坛交流平台。2014年,香山论坛升级为“一轨半”国际安全和防务对话平台。2018年10月,香山论坛更名为北京香山论坛,来自67个国家和7个国际组织的500余名代表参加论坛,共同探讨应对地区安全威胁和挑战的新思路新途径,为促进亚太地区安全对话和互信合作发挥了积极作用。

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